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Enforcement of Non-Disclosure Agreements in the Tech World

Enforcement of Non-Disclosure Agreements in the Tech World

In the technology industry, where confidential information and intellectual property (IP) are frequently the foundation of a business's competitive edge, non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) are essential. The growing global expansion of the tech industry has made NDA enforcement increasingly important and complex. This article's goal is to examine how NDAs are enforced in the tech industry, with a particular emphasis on Southeast Asia. It does this by discussing the difficulties and best practices associated with upholding IP protection and confidentiality, as well as by referencing pertinent case laws.

The Importance of NDAs in Tech.

NDAs are crucial in the tech sector for safeguarding sensitive data, including trade secrets, software code, algorithms, and business plans. Non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) establish a legal framework that requires parties to maintain the confidentiality of information they disclose, preventing misuse and unauthorized disclosures. They are especially crucial in commercial partnerships, M&A transactions, and employment partnerships where confidential information is regularly shared. Companies run the danger of losing their competitive edge and incurring large financial losses without NDA.

Legal Framework and Enforcement Challenges

There are notable differences in how NDAs are enforced in various jurisdictions. For example, the Defend Trade Secrets Act (DTSA) of 2016 in the United States offers strong government protection for trade secrets, which facilitates the enforcement of NDAs. NDAs were crucial in safeguarding Waymo's valuable self-driving technology in the case of Waymo LLC v. Uber Technologies, Inc. (2017) case, which led to a USD245 million settlement in Waymo's favor.

Southeast Asia has a more dispersed enforcement environment since different countries have different legal frameworks. With the goal of harmonizing IP laws and promoting collaboration among member states, the ASEAN Intellectual Property Rights Action Plan 2016–2025 demonstrates the rising understanding of the value of strong IP protection measures, such as NDAs, to promote innovation and economic progress (ASEAN IP Portal,2024).

Case Studies in Southeast Asia (Malaysia and Singapore)

Several high-profile cases in Malaysia and Singapore highlighted the complexities of enforcing NDAs in the region:

Singapore: Adinop Co Ltd v. Rovithai Limited and DSM Singapore Industrial Pte Ltd (2019) SGCA 67 provide as excellent examples of the country's legal framework surrounding contractual duties of confidentiality. In this instance, the court made clear that in situations where a confidentiality agreement exists, the parties' responsibilities are largely determined by the terms of that agreement. Even in cases where equitable principles would not deem the material confidential, the Court will nonetheless interpret these terms to ascertain the extent of confidentiality. Additionally, the court would typically refrain from imposing additional or more broad obligations of confidentiality in equity when there is a clear contractual duty of confidence. On occasion, though, equity might intervene and impose a duty of confidence.

Malaysia: Although Malaysia's NDA legal structure is still being developed, this case shows that the court is prepared to maintain NDAs to safeguard corporate interests. Within the case of Dynacast (Melaka) Sdn Bhd & Ors v Vision Cast Sdn Bhd [2016] 3 MLJ 417, the Federal Court clarified the obligation of confidentiality. The Federal Court ruled in this case that confidentiality obligations resulting from nondisclosure agreements (NDAs) signed by the parties may be perpetual, meaning that one party may be required to uphold the duty of confidence indefinitely and that there is no need for a time limit on the protection of confidential information.

Strategies for Effective NDA Enforcement

To enhance the enforceability of NDAs, especially in regions with diverse legal systems like Southeast Asia, companies can adopt several strategies:

  • Clear and Specific Terms: Non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) must specify exactly what material is considered confidential, as well as the parties' responsibilities and the length of the confidentiality period. This clears up any confusion and makes the agreement more enforceable. To guarantee that everyone is aware of their responsibilities and the repercussions of a breach, use precise and unambiguous language.

  • Jurisdiction Clause: Adding a jurisdiction clause to an NDA helps make it clear which nation's laws will apply to the contract and where disagreements will be settled. This is especially crucial for international transactions. By ensuring that any legal action can be taken in a favorable legal environment, jurisdiction provisions assist prevent conflicts.

  • Regular Training and Awareness: Educating employees and partners about the importance of confidentiality and the specifics of NDAs can prevent inadvertent breaches and foster a culture of compliance. Regular training sessions can reinforce the significance of NDAs and ensure that everyone understands their role in protecting confidential information.

  • Technological Safeguards: Implementing technological measures such as encryption, access controls, and monitoring systems can help protect confidential information and support the enforcement of NDAs. Technological safeguards are essential for preventing unauthorized access and ensuring that confidential information remains secure.

  • Legal Resources and Remedies: Understanding the legal recourse and remedies available in different jurisdictions is crucial. Companies should be prepared to take legal action swiftly in case of a breach, leveraging local legal expertise to navigate the specificities of each jurisdiction. Being proactive and prepared the company’s interests.


Enforcing NDAs is critical for protecting sensitive information in the tech industry. While challenges exist, especially in the various legal landscapes of Southeast Asia, adopting clear and specific agreements, understanding local legal frameworks, implementing robust technological and organizational measures can enhance the effectiveness of NDAs. As the ASEAN region continues to harmonize its IP laws, the enforcement of NDAs is expected to become more streamlined, supporting innovation and economic growth across the region.


By: Sarvesvaaran Ganaisin, Advocate & Solicitor


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